Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a widespread virus that can cause respiratory infections and affect the lungs and respiratory tract. It is also referred to as human orthopneumovirus and is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family. While RSV primarily affects young children below 2 years of age, it can also infect adults and the elderly. Infections caused by RSV can lead to severe complications such as bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and ear infections.

RSV is an enveloped virus that has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. The genome is non-segmented, meaning that, unlike influenza, RSV cannot participate in the type of genetic reassortment and antigenic shifts responsible for large pandemics. 

It has 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins. The gene order is NS1-NS2-N-P-M-SH-G-F-M2-L, with the NS1 and NS2 gene serving as nonstructural promoter genes.

F and G glycoproteins are the two major surface proteins that control viral attachment and the initial stages of infection. F and G proteins are also the primary targets for neutralizing antibodies during natural infection.

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